BECOME A MEMBER
สมัคร ! สมาชิกชมรมรักสุขภาพ
ฟรี ข่าวสาระความรู้เรื่องสุขภาพ

Google
Search WWW Search thailabonline.com

op


Brucellosis 
  เป็นโรคติดเชื้อจากสัตว์สู่คน
  จากการสัมผัสกับผลิตภัณฑ์
  เช่น นม หรือสัมผัสคลุกคลี
  กับสัตว์วัว ควาย แพะแกะ
  หมู อูฐ เป็นต้น 
  ความผิดปกติคล้ายกลุ่ม
  อาการไข้ ปวดกล้ามเนื้อ
  กล้ามเนื้อกระตุก มีผลต่อ
  ระบบขับถ่ายปัสสาวะ ไต

 

 



Health Navigation






สนใจรายละเอียดเพิ่มเติม
กรุณาแจ้งให้ทึมงานเพื่อ
จัดเตรียมหาสาระให้




Contact : 
info@thailabonline.com
ชมรมเรารักสุขภาพ 
ไทยแล็ปออนไลน์




  Brucellosis       
WHO HQ, Geneva, Switzerland
Fact Sheet N173
July 1997


Brucellosis 

Animal and human health are inextricably linked. People depend on animals for 
nutrition, socio-economic development and companionship. Yet animals can transmit 
many different diseases to humans. Diseases transmitted from animals to humans are 
termed zoonoses and some of them are potentially devastating.

Brucellosis is a zoonosis of both public health and economic significance in most 
developing countries. In many developed countries, the animal disease has been 
brought under control, which has led to a subsequent decrease in the number of 
human cases. The occurrence of the disease in humans is largely dependent on the 
animal reservoir. Where brucellosis exists in sheep and goats, it causes the greatest 
incidence of infection in humans.

Causes Six species of Brucella are currently presently known, of which Brucella 
melitensis, Brucella suis and Brucella abortus have public health implications. 
Brucella melitensis occurs more frequently than the other types in the general 
population and it is the most pathogenic and invasive species of Brucella, followed, in 
order, by Brucella suis and Brucella abortus.

Transmission Brucellosis is transmitted through contaminated and untreated milk and 
milk products and by direct contact with infected animals (cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, 
camels, buffaloes, wild ruminants and, very recently, seals), animal carcasses, and 
abortion materials. Worldwide, millions of individual are at risk, especially in 
developing countries where the infection in animals has not been brought under 
control, heat treatment procedures of milk (e.g. pasteurization) are not routinely 
applied, and food habits such as consumption of raw milk and poor hygienic 
conditions favour human infection. In such conditions transmission of the infection to 
humans may frequently occur. Although the disease in animals has been brought 
under control in several industrialised countries, it occurs sporadically in individuals 
who acquire the infection abroad or by ingestion of unsafe animal products and in 
occupationally exposed groups (e.g. farmers, veterinarians, laboratory and 
slaughterhouse workers).

Main clinical symptoms The incubation period of brucellosis is usually one to three 
weeks, but sometimes may be several months. The illness may be mild and 
self-limiting or severe. It may have either a sudden or insidious onset and is 
accompanied by continued, intermittent, or irregular fever. The symptomatology of 
brucellosis is like that of many other febrile diseases, but with a marked effect on the 
musculoskeletal system evidenced by generalized aches and pains and associated 
with fatigue, prostration and mental depression. Urogenital symptoms may dominate 
the clinical presentation in some patients. The duration of the disease can vary from a 
few weeks to several months and laboratory tests are needed to confirm the clinical 
diagnosis.

Prevention Brucellosis can be prevented in humans by controlling, or better, 
eliminating the disease in the animal population and avoiding consumption of raw 
milk and raw milk products. Brucellosis control programmes based on various 
strategies, including vaccination and/or test-and-slaughter of infected animals, have 
been successful in controlling the disease in animals in several countries, resulting in 
a drastic reduction in its incidence in the human population. Proper heat treatment of 
milk or milk products is important for effective prevention of brucellosis in humans. 
However, local customs, traditional habits and beliefs may impede the wide 
application of such measures. Health education should be intimately linked with all 
phases of prevention and control activities.

Treatment Antibiotics are effective against Brucella. However, Brucella is localized 
intracellularly like certain other micro-organisms (e.g., Mycobacterium tuberculosis), 
and requires the association of more than one antimicrobial for several weeks.

Possible drug resistance Antimicrobial resistant strains of Brucella are reported; 
however, their clinical implications are not yet fully understood. Some of the 
commonly-used antimicrobials for brucellosis treatment (i.e. Rifampicin and 
Streptomycin) are also first line drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis. The present 
worldwide occurrence of multi-drug resistant strains of pathogenic Mycobacterium 
tuberculosis poses the urgent question of an alternative treatment for brucellosis, 
using antimicrobial agents not employed for tuberculosis.

Worldwide burden of the disease Although human brucellosis is a notifiable disease 
in many countries, official figures do not fully reflect the number of people infected 
each year and the true incidence has been estimated to be between 10 and 25 times 
higher than what reported figures indicate. Cases very often remain unrecognized 
because of inaccurate diagnosis, and are thus treated as other diseases or as "fever 
of unknown origin". Animal brucellosis also poses a barrier to trade of animals and 
animal products and could seriously impair socio-economic development, especially 
of livestock owners, a most vulnerable sector in many rural populations. As an 
indication of the importance of this disease, plans to eliminate ovine, caprine and 
bovine brucellosis from the European Union were expected to receive over half of the 
total European Commission funding for animal diseases control measures in 1997.

Brucellosis in humans and animals is increasing in certain parts of the world, 
especially in developing areas of the Mediterranean Region, Middle East, western 
Asia and parts of Africa and Latin America. Brucella melitensis especially, being very 
pathogenic for human beings, constitutes a public health priority. Its recent emergence 
as a bovine pathogen in intensive dairy farms causes particular concern. A similar 
problem has also been reported where Brucella suis has become established in 
cattle.

In Mediterranean and Middle East countries the annual incidence of brucellosis in 
people varies from less than 1 up to 78 cases per 100 000; however, over 550 cases 
have been reported from confined endemic areas where no animal control measures 
are applied. Up to 77 cases per 100 000 people have been reported from certain 
communities of south European countries in which animal control measures are 
mandatory. Reported cases largely underestimate the size of the problem. From a 
recent survey in a randomly selected human population of a country of the Arabic 
Peninsula, serological evidence of exposure to Brucella has been found to be close 
to 20%, with more than 2% of these having active disease. Similar figures may be 
expected from most countries in which the disease is endemic in the animal 
population. Higher seroprevalence of brucellosis should also be expected in 
occupationally exposed groups.

WHO's efforts to combat brucellosis WHO has been involved in brucellosis work 
since its establishment and a number of programmes are underway to strengthen 
brucellosis surveillance activities at global level and to reduce the incidence of 
human brucellosis. In collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the 
United Nations, Rome, Italy (FAO) and the Office international des Epizooties, Paris, 
France (OIE), WHO is promoting implementation of a regional control programme in 
Middle East countries. The Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Programme (MZCP) of 
WHO is coordinating a study on the evaluation of new treatment regimes for human 
brucellosis. The results of the pilot feasibility study were recently evaluated and the 
main study should begin by October 1997. WHO and the United Nations 
Development Programme (UNDP) are jointly assisting the Palestinian Authority to 
develop and implement a programme for the control of human and animal brucellosis 
in the West Bank and Gaza Strip. In the Americas Region, the Pan-American Health 
Organization and the Regional Office of WHO have launched an initiative for bovine 
brucellosis elimination from Latin American countries. WHO has also developed a 
number of educational material for the attention of travellers and consumers on dietary 
precautions, promoting, among others, heat treatment of milk and derived products. 
WHO is currently developing guidelines for integrated surveillance of brucellosis and 
promoting research on new brucellosis vaccines for both humans and animals.


____________________

For further information, journalists can contact 1) Health Communications and Public Relations, WHO, Geneva, tel. (4122) 791 2599, fax (4122) 791 4858; 2) the Division of Emerging and other Communicable Diseases Surveillance and Control (EMC), WHO, Geneva, fax (4l22) 79l 4893; phone (4122) 79l 2531; e-mail: cosivio@who.ch.

All WHO Press Releases, Fact Sheets and Features can be obtained on Internet on the WHO home page http: //www.who.ch// 





   


 






We subscribe to the
HONcode principle
of the Health on the
Net Foundation

 
About Us | Add URL I Privacy Policy | Member Register | Health Shop | Contact Us | Health Board | Advertising
Disease / Condition | Head Line News | Healthcare | Diagnostic | Alternative Medicine |
Health Game Zone


1999-2000 Thailabonline.com. All rights reserved. 
By using this information service,    you accept the terms of our Visitor Agreement. Please read it. 
The material on Thailabonline.com and iHealthsite.net are for informational purposes only and is not 
a substitute for medical advice or treatment for any medical conditions.   You should promptly seek 
professional medical care if you have any concern about your health, and you should always consult 
your physician before starting a fitness regimen.
”Thailabonline.com” and “ihealthsite.net” are trademarks of Crystal Diagnostics Co.,Ltd.