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Healthcare and Lab
Diagnostic Newsletter

สาระข่าวสารความรู้เรื่องสุขภาพ
การตรวจวินิจฉัยโรคทางแล็ป

  Lab Test Descriptions   
   รายละเอียดและประโยชน์
   ในการตรวจแล็ปแต่ละชนิด

 Thyroid Markers Test
TSH
 
Thyroid Stimulating 
 Hormone
T3
Triiodothyronine(T3) 
T4
 
Total Thyroxine (T4)
freeT4
 
Free Thyroxine (fT4)


   วิธีทดสอบ/วินิจฉัยทางแล็ป
 
     ( ห้องปฏิบัติการชันสูตร ) 
   
Reference test procedure
 
โรคและกลุ่มอาการที่สนใจ
    และสอบถามรายละเอียดมาก

    - โรคของนักธุรกิจ
    - โรคที่ไม่ติดต่อ
    - โรคของผู้สูงอายุ
    - การดูแลเมื่อเข้าสู่วัยทอง
ิ    - ปัญหาและการเปลี่ยนไต
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   Lab Test Descriptions รายละเอียดและประโยชน์ในการตรวจแล็ป      


Understanding Your Test Results
The following is a brief synopsis of the blood screening tests. It is intended only for your information and should not be used for diagnosis or interpretation. Questions should be directed to your physician.
เข้าใจเรื่องการตรวจเลือดทางห้องปฏิบัติการ(ห้องแล็ป)
รายละเอียดต่อไปนี้เป็นข้อมูลช่วยให้ท่านเข้าใจถึงความหมายของการทาสอบเลือดในแต่ละชนิดว่า ตรวจไปเพื่ออะไร
ไม่ใช่เพื่อให้ท่านสามารถนำไปแปลผลการตรวจเพื่อการวินิจฉัยโรคเอง แต่ช่วยให้ท่านพอมีความรู้ความเข้าใจสามารถ
สื่อสารและสอบถามกับแพทย์ได้อย่างดีมากยิ่งขึ้น

Early detection is the best defense. Serious medical conditions such as heart disease, cancer and diabetes can dwell in a patient’s system for long periods of time without them ever being the wiser. But by taking charge of their own health through routine clinical testing, individuals can prevent disease and increase their chances of reversing potential problem areas. Experts contend, however, that due to a misdirected health care focus, this task is not always carried out.

ประโยชน์ของการตรวจเลือดทางห้องแล็ป มีประโยชน์อย่างมากในทางป้องกันดูแลรักษาสุขภาพของเราเอง
แทนที่จะรอให้เจ็บป่วยแล้วจึงไปรักษา ก็เปลี่ยนมาเป็นการตรวจค้นหาเพื่อป้องกันแต่เนิ่นๆจะให้ผลดีโดยรวม
มากกว่า เราสามารถนำผลการตรวจอย่างต่อเนื่องมาช่วยในการแปลผลของสุขภาพร่างกายของเราเอง
โดยเฉพาะอย่างยิ่งโรคอันตรายประเภทฉับพลันเช่นโรคหัวใจ โรคมะเร็งและโรคเบาหวาน เป็นต้น โรคเหล่านี้
หากตรวจพบแต่เนิ่นๆ จะช่วยในการรักษาได้เป็นอย่างมาก เช่นในอดีตกว่ามาพบแพทย์มักจะเป็นระยะที่3-4 แล้ว 
ทำให้การรักษาช่วยมักไม่ค่อยได้ผล แต่การตรวจทางแล็ปในปัจจุบันช่วยให้เราค้นพบแต่เนิ่นๆทำให้การรักษาค่อน
ข้างได้ผลดีสามารถหายกลับเป็นปกติดังเดิม เป็นต้น
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BONES & MINERALS
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
ELECTROLYTES
KIDNEY PANEL
LIPID PROFILE
LIVER PROFILE
THYROID PANEL

A.N.A.
A/G Ratio
ABO Group & Rh Type
Albumin
Alkaline Phosphatase
BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen)
BUN/Creatinine Ratio
CA 15-3
CA-125
Calcium
Carbon Dioxide, Total
Cardio C-Reactive Protein
CEA
Chloride
Cholesterol
Cholesterol/HDL Ratio

Creatinine
DHEA Sulfate
Estradiol
F.S.H.

Ferritin
Free Thyroxin Index
Gamma Glutamyl Transferase
(GGT)

Globulin
Glucose
H.Pylori
HDL
Hematocrit

Hemoglobin
Homocysteine
IGF-1
Iron
LD or LDH (Lactate Dehydrogenase)
LDL
MCV, MCH, MCHC

 

 

Osteoporosis
Phosphorus, Serum
Platelet
Potassium (K)
Progesterone
PSA
RDW
Red Blood Cells (RBC)
Sedimentation Rate
SGOT (AST)
SGPT (ALT)
Sodium
T3 Uptake
Testosterone, Total
Thyroxin (T4)
Total Bilirubin
Total Protein
Triglycerides
TSH
Uric Acid
Urinalysis
WBC

การตรวจเป็นชุดแบบโปรไฟล์ เพื่อเน้นหาความผิดปกติของระบบใดระบบหนึ่งของร่างกาย
Lab Profile testing

Glucose
Measures blood sugar-elevated levels associated with diabetes. Glucose is a six-carbon sugar that is the main source of energy for all of the cells in the body. The rate at which it is metabolized is controlled by insulin, which is secreted by the pancreas. Elevated fasting levels of glucose (>109 mg/dl) may be an early sign of diabetes or could indicate other problems such as hyperthyroidism. Low levels (hypoglycemia) could indicate too much insulin in the blood.
Fluids and Electrolytes
Electrolytes are positive and negative ions that exist in the intracellular and extracellular fluids. They regulate osmolality, state of hydration and pH. Also, electrolyte gradients are maintained by cells and are important to the function of nervous tissue and activities of skeleton and heart muscle.
Chloride, Serum
Similar to sodium, it helps to maintain the body's electrolyte balance. Almost never found out of normal range alone, this element usually fluctuates with elevated or decreased levels of sodium or potassium. Borderline levels have little clinical significance.
Potassium
Helps to control the nerves and muscles. This element helps in regulating the electrical activity of all muscles. It also affects the acid-base and fluid levels in the body. Elevated levels could indicate kidney disease. Low levels can cause muscle weakness and heart problems. Certain drugs and supplements can cause fluctuations in potassium levels so it is important to discuss the medications taken with the doctor (for example diuretics could cause low potassium levels).
Sodium, Serum
One of the major salts in the body fluid; sodium is important in the body's water balance and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles. As one of the four major electrolytes Sodium (Na) is necessary in the maintenance of the body's water balance, the acid-base balance, and the electrical activity of nerves and muscles. Elevated levels could be caused by not drinking enough water or by too much salt intake. Fluid loss from dehydration, vomiting or diarrhea could cause low sodium levels.
Kidney
The major functions of the kidney are 1) elimination of metabolic waste, 2) regulation of the internal fluid environment and 3) production of hormones. Any of these functions may be used to assess the renal status. The routine biochemical assessment of kidney function includes determination of serum levels of the waste products, urea, creatinine and uric acids.
Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN)
A by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys. Elevated levels could be caused by many factors such as dehydration, blood loss, Urinary Tract Infections, congestive heart failure, GI bleeding, or improperly functioning kidneys. Decreased levels could be influenced by liver disease, too much water intake, a low protein-high carbohydrate diet, or pregnancy.
Creatinine, Serum
Elevated levels could indicate deterioration of kidney function. Excreted by the kidneys, Creatinine is the product of the breakdown of creatinine, which helps to contract skeletal muscle. Malnutrition, dehydration, or liver function has little influence on Creatinine levels (unlike BUN). Elevated levels may indicate chronic kidney disease or an obstruction of the urinary tract. A low Creatinine level is often present in muscular dystrophy.
Uric acid
Another by-product of protein metabolism eliminated through the kidneys. Uric acid is an indicator of kidney function.
Bun/Creatinine Ratio
Calculated by dividing the BUN by the Creatinine. This ratio is important if BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen) is high to narrow down the cause. If BUN is elevated this ratio, which compares the BUN level in the blood to the Creatinine level, can help distinguish between a possible kidney problem or if the cause is something like dehydration or blood loss into the gut.
Liver
More than 500 of the liver's functions have been identified. Some of its major functions are producing bile by liver cells; processing glucose, proteins, vitamins, fats, and most of the other compounds used by the body; producing hemoglobin for vital use of its iron content in red blood cells; and converting poisonous ammonia to urea. The liver cells also render harmless numerous substances, such as alcohol, nicotine, and other poisons, as well as various harmful substances produced by the intestine. The liver contains cells called hepatocytes, which produce many different proteins. Some of these are enzymes and others are transport proteins. The activity of several enzymes, the concentrations of several proteins and substances synthesized or stored by the liver are used to estimate the status of the liver. The biochemical assessment also evaluates the integrity of hepatocyte organelles and membranes, the ability of the liver to manufacture or convert various compounds and the ability to secrete bile.
Alanine aminotransferase (ALT or SGPT)
An enzyme found primarily in the liver. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Albumin, serum
One of the major proteins in the blood and a reflection of the general state of nutrition. Approximately two-thirds of the total protein found circulating in the blood, albumin is important in maintaining water inside the blood vessels. If water leaks out into the other areas of the body there can be swelling. This protein is produced by the liver and is normally secreted into the blood in large amounts. Decreased levels of albumin could be caused by liver disease, too much water in the body, kidney disease, severe injury such as burns or major bone fractures, malnutrition, or slow bleeding over a long period of time.
Albumin/Globulin ratio
Calculated by dividing the albumin by the globulin.
Alkaline phosphatase
A body protein important in diagnosing proper bone and liver functions.
Aspartate aminotransferase (AST or SGOT)
An enzyme found in skeletal and heart muscle, liver and other organs. Abnormalities may represent liver disease.
Bilirubin, Total
A chemical involved with liver functions. High concentrations may result in jaundice. Produced in the breakdown of red blood cells, elevated levels could indicate liver disease. During the breakdown of hemoglobin (red blood cells) Bilirubin is produced in the spleen and is transported to the liver for excretion by attaching to the blood protein albumin. Bilirubin is the orange-yellow pigment that creates the yellow tint in the plasma or serum of the blood.
Gamma Glutamyl transferase (GGTP)
An enzyme which can be an early indicator of liver abnormalities. It is highly sensitive to recent ingestion of alcohol.
Globulin, Total
A major group of proteins in the blood comprising the infection fighting antibodies. Composed of about 60 different proteins (such as alpha, beta, and gamma globulin) globulins help the body fight infections and some play a major role in the clotting and unclotting of blood. Due to the number of different globulins found in this group, elevated or decreased levels may indicate the need for further testing of the individual proteins.
Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH)
An enzyme found mostly in the heart, muscles, liver, kidney, brain, and red blood cells. When an organ of the body is damaged, LDH is released in greater quantity into the blood stream.
Total Protein
A general figure--out of normal range may indicate the need for further testing. As the sum of the albumin and globulin figures, the total protein value reflects on the body's general nutritional state. Level fluctuations aren't necessarily indicative of disease but the possible need for further testing.
Bone and Mineral
Minerals are extremely important micronutrients essential for health. Essential minerals function in numerous metabolic reactions and play a major role in antioxidant defenses. These micronutrients are involved in wound healing, immunity, cancer protection, glucose metabolism, protein synthesis, nucleic acid function and hormone activities. Bone is a dynamic tissue constantly remodeled throughout life. The structure of bone consists of a solid mineral phase in close association with an organic matrix of mainly collagen. The mineral phase is made up of largely calcium and phosphate.
Iron, Total
An abnormally low-test result may indicate iron deficiency anemia.
Iron Binding Capacity
Used to refine the body's iron status; iron is important for proper metabolism of red blood cells. Magnesium - can be used to assess nutritional status and diagnose calcium related disorders.
Calcium
A mineral essential for development and maintenance of healthy bones and teeth. It is important also for the normal function of muscles, nerves and blood clotting. This test cannot be used as an indicator of osteoporosis. While almost all of the calcium in the body is found in bone, the small amount that is found in the blood is important for the proper function of nerves, muscles, enzymes, and blood clotting. Elevated levels could be caused by excess intake of vitamin D, excess intake of antacids and milk (which often can be seen in people with ulcers), bone disease, and hyper-parathyroidism. (Responsible for the maintenance of an equilibrium state, the parathyroid gland is the chief regulator of calcium.) Decreased levels of calcium are often associated with malnutrition.
Phosphorus
Together with calcium, it is essential for healthy development of bones and teeth. Associated with hormone imbalance, bone disease and kidney disease. It is found mainly in bones and teeth. NOTE: a temporary drop in phosphorus level can be seen after a meal.
Thyroid
The thyroid gland synthesizes, stores and releases hormones. The hormones secreted are iodine containing amino acids, Thyroxine (T4) and Trilodothyronine (T3) Uptake. The thyroid hormones influence a diversity of metabolic processes. These tests help to evaluate thyroid hormones that control the body's metabolic rate.
TSH, High Sensitivity
Today, most doctors prefer the thyroid stimulating hormone. Symptoms of an underactive thyroid are fatigue, weight gain, depression, dry skin and muscle cramps. An overactive thyroid are ffatigue, weight loss, anxiety, heart palpitatins and rapid pulse.
Homocysteine
This amino acid is an intermedial metabolite for two pathways in the body. Studies suggest that it plays a critical role in destroying the lining of artery walls, accelerating the build-up of scar tissue, and promoting the formation of blood clots. Elevated levels are strong indicators for myocardial infarction, stroke, and artheroscherosis, as well as venous thrombosis, rheumatoid arthritis, miscarriages, and diabetes.
Cardio C - Reactive Protein
A substance in the blood that indicates the presence of inflammation, high levels may warn of a heart attack in advance. Cardio (also specific or high sensitivity) C-Reactive Protein is a marker of inflammation to the blood vessels and a strong predictor of risk for future myocardial infarctions.
Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA)
Prostate specific antigen (PSA), is a protein made only in the prostate gland. PSA is produced by normal, abnormal and cancerous prostatic tissue. Some of it leaks into the blood and the PSA blood test is an accurate measure of this amount. The theory is that cancer causes more of the protein to be made and leaked into the blood than normal prostate tissue, so PSA is now used for assisting in the diagnosis and monitoring of prostatic carcinoma. A non-cancerous, abnormally enlarged prostate (called Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy or BPH) can also produce elevations of PSA. BPH is called benign to distinguish it from cancer, not to imply that it isn't troublesome. PSA can also be elevated following a digital exam or during an infection. PSA level needs to be considered in light of several factors including age, race, the presence of BPH or infection, and overall medical condition. The higher the number the more likely cancer is present. Below 2 is generally considered to indicate that cancer is unlikely. Between 2-5 whether to worry depends on personal "style" of the physician and the other factors listed above. Above 10 is very suggestive of cancer, but nothing is absolute. PSA above 4 at age 40 should attract your attention and definitely see your doctor if you are above 4 at age 50. Occasionally, normal PSA values can be found in men with biopsy-proven prostatic carcinoma. In those cases, the other well-known protein of prostatic origin, prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP), may be monitored. Some people have proposed that the rate of increase in PSA can be monitored to help distinguish BPH from prostate cancer. The theory is that cancer grows faster than BPH and thus the PSA will rise faster as well. Certainly a 2-point rise in PSA in a six-month period should attract some attention at any age.
Cardiovascular Lipids
The status of the cardiovascular system is generally evaluated by measuring lipids and their derivatives. Total cholesterol is a marker of risk for coronary heart disease. Cholesterol exists in different complex forms such as high-density lipoproteins (HDL) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL). An increased ratio of HDL to total cholesterol is believed to favor well-being. Triglycerides are important neutral fats found in tissue and blood. Triglycerides containing lipoproteins may also contribute to dysfunctions relating to coronary heart disease.
Cholesterol, Total
A sterol in the blood. Knowing your cholesterol may be as important as knowing your blood pressure. Elevated cholesterol is associated with an increasing risk of coronary heart disease.
HDL-Cholesterol
High-density lipoproteins are believed to take cholesterol away from cells and transport it back to the liver for processing or removal. They have become known as the "good" cholesterol as persons with high levels of HDL may have less heart disease. Low HDL could be the result of smoking and lack of exercise.
LDL-Cholesterol
Low-density lipoproteins contain the greatest percentage of cholesterol and may be responsible for depositing cholesterol on the artery walls. For that reason, they could be known as the "bad" cholesterol.
Cholesterol/HDL Ratio
Calculated by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL. Ratio used by physicians in determining your relative risk for developing cardiovascular heart disease.
Triglycerides
Triglycerides is a fat in the blood responsible for providing energy to the cells of the body. Triglycerides should be less than 400 mg/dl even in a non-fasting state.
Complete Blood Count (CBC's)
The complete blood count (CBC) is an analysis of blood cells and coagulation. The basic examination of blood includes analysis of the concentration, structure and function of the different blood cells. Three populations of cells normally present in the blood are erythrocytes (red blood cells, RBC), leukocytes (white blood cells, WBC, and thrombocytes (platelets). Cell counts of erythrocytes (red blood cells), leukocytes (white blood cells) and platelets are expressed as concentrations per unit volume of blood. The RBC's and platelets are relatively uniform populations in cell type and concentration. The WBC, however, represents a diverse population consisting of granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes and lymphocytes. The function of all the blood cell populations is essential to normal life.
Basophils
The results of this and eosinophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils deal with white blood cell function. Important to the body's defense against infection and in the assessment of nutritional status.
Eosinophils
The results of this and basophils, lymphocytes, monocytes and neutrophils deal with white blood cell function. Important to the body's defense against infection and in the assessment of nutritional status.
Hematocrit
Measures the volume of red cells that transports oxygen through the blood stream to all cells of the body. Oxygen is needed for healthy organs. It is an indicator of the mass of red blood cells; polycythemia, a high volume and anemia with low volume.
Hemoglobin
A chemical compound inside red cells that transports oxygen through the blood stream to all cells of the body. Oxygen is needed for healthy organs. Hemoglobin gives the red color to blood.
Lymphocytes
The results of this and basophils, eosinophils, monocytes and neutrophils deal with white blood cell function. Important to the body's defense against infection and in the assessment of nutritional status.
Monocytes
The results of this and basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and neutrophils deal with white blood cell function. Important to the body's defense against infection. Also important in the assessment of nutritional status.
MCH
Mean corpuscular hemoglobin is one way to measure the average hemoglobin concentration within red blood cells, which varies from normal with different diseases.

MCHC -mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration.

MCV - mean corpuscular volume measures red blood cell volume.

Monocytes
- important in the assessment of nutritional status.

Neutrophils - the results of this and basophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes deal with white blood cell function. Important to the body's defense against infection. Also important in the assessment of nutritional status.
Platelets
Produced in the bone marrow, these blood cell particles are involved with the forming of blood clots. Platelet count may be higher in women than men and may be influenced by race. An elevated platelet count could suggest certain leukemia's, whereas a low value may suggest bone marrow disease or anemia.
RBC
Red blood cells measure the number of blood cells available to carry oxygen to all cells.
RDW
The fourth indices, measures the variation in red cell size to determine bleeding disorders.
WBC
White blood cells are the body's primary defense against disease. White blood cells help fight infection.
Complete Urinalysis
The examination of urine to detect disease is the oldest medical test, and today is a routine test which should be part of every exam. It provides a wealth of information about the kidneys and the general state of health. Included are: Color, Odor, Glucose, Protein, pH, Specific Gravity, Esterase, Ketones, Occult, Bilirubin, and Nitrite.

CA-125
Ovarian cancer survival is directly related to its detection stage. Studies have shown that the CA-125 may forewarn of ovarian cancer, as 80% of the women who have ovarian cancer have elevated levels of the serum tumor marker CA-125. This also means that less than 20% of these women do not have the marker at all. The rate of "false positives" with CA-125 is also high, which means that this test alone is inadequate for screening purposes. It is not licensed as a complete cancer screening, and should be supplemented with your physician's examination. However repeat testing of CA-125 is helpful to observe a trend.
CEA (Carcinoembryonic Antigen)
CEA is a protein that normally occurs in fetal gut tissue. After birth, detectable serum levels essentially disappear. However, CEA may increase in the presence of various disorders such as colon cancer. This test may also be used to determine the responsiveness of cancer patients to treatment (to determine if cancer is spreading or going into remission).
CA 15-3 (Carbohydrate Antigen)
Blood test used to investigate recurrence and spread of breast cancer. Elevated levels suggest spread or recurrence. Often used with CEA and CA-125. Not used to screen for breast cancer.
ABO Group and Rhesus antigen status (Rh factor)
While there is no scientific basis for this idea-and no evidence has linked blood type to specific medical conditions-people are often curious about their blood type as a matter of self-knowledge. Blood type knowledge can be personally useful when you are considering giving blood. While blood donations of all kinds are always welcome, sometimes blood banks have a shortage of a specific blood type. Knowing your blood type, you'll be able to respond to these important appeals.
FSH - (Follicle-stimulating hormone)
If you're starting to experience hot flashes, or any of the other symptoms associated with menopause, the follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) test can help predict when you will actually go through menopause. It's especially helpful if you've had a hysterectomy and don't have periods to judge your menopause status by. The test is done to determine ovarian failure, which leads to menopause, and can give you an idea whether you're ready to begin hormone-replacement therapy (HRT).
Carbon dioxide
CO2 is the major waste product of normal metabolism. Since the main route of excretion of Co2 is through the lungs, high levels are found in those with breathing difficulties such as pneumonia or emphysema.
Estradiol
The most powerful natural estrogen. High estradiol is found in certain tumors of the ovary or adrenal gland, and in some liver diseases. Low levels are seen in decreased functioning of the pituitary gland or the ovaries.
DHEA
Dehydroepiandosterone is a hormone produced by the adrenal gland that causes the formation of male features. Blood levels are used to evaluate infertility, menstrual abnormalities, virilization, and to monitor treatment with drugs that reduce DHEA levels. It is best interpreted with other hormone tests, such as testosterone and androstenedione.
ANA
Antinuclear antibodies are found in diseased often called autoimmune diseases and indicate that the immune system is reacting against the body's tissues. A positive ANA will almost always be followed by other tests designed to further investigate your problem.
Iron w/TIBC (Total Iron Binding Capacity)
Iron circulates in the blood bound to proteins, but only a portion of the total amount of protein which can bind iron normally does so. This test measures the total amount of iron, the iron binding capacity, and how much of this capacity is being used. It is obtained to evaluate anemia and nutritional status.
Progesterone
During pregnancy, progesterone is produced by the placenta and is important in maintaining the pregnancy. Blood levels of progesterone are used in infertility evaluations to confirm the presence of ovulation, and during pregnancy to study how well the placenta is working. It is also used to monitor the effectiveness of medication-induced ovulation.
Sedimentation Rate
Used to screen for inflammation, cancer, and infection. A high rate is generally taken to indicate the presence of some abnormality which needs further evaluation, where a normal rate is often held to indicate the absence of significant disease.
Magnesium
A mineral particularly important to the nerves and muscles. High magnesium produces muscle weakness, sweating, and low blood pressure and is seen in kidney failure. Low magnesium symptoms include tremors, muscle cramps or irregular heartbeat, and found in malnutrition, alcoholism, diabetes, and pregnancy.
Ferritin
A major storehouse for iron in the body, this test is used to evaluate anemia and iron deficiency seen in low Ferritin. It is high with inflammation, infection, liver disease, and certain cancers such as leukemia and lymphoma.
Testosterone, Total
A hormone manufactured in the testicles of men in large amounts, and in the ovaries and adrenal glands in women in smaller amounts, most often used to evaluate virilization in women and to investigate abnormal sexual development and sexual dysfunction in men.
Hemoglobin A1C
The hemoglobin A1c test is a non-fasting, blood test designed to measure the percent (%) concentration of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in individuals diagnosed with or suspected of having diabetes. The HbA1c test provides a reliable method to measure and/or assess the average level of individual diabetes control over the past 90 - 120 days. This test is not a substitute for daily (routine) blood glucose monitoring.
IGF-1
Somatomedic-C (SC) is produced in the liver in response to stimulation by growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland. This insulin-like growth factor level used to evaluate disturbances of growth and to monitor treatment with growth hormone.
Osteoporosis
The Merck Manual provides valuable information on Osteoporosis: Bone, which are hard and dense, contain minerals such as calcium and phosphorus. To maintain density, the body requires an adequate supply of calcium and other minerals. We must produce the proper amounts of several hormones as well, such as parathyroid hormone, growth hormone, calcitonin, estrogen (in women), and testosterone (in men). Also, an adequate supply of vitamin D is necessary to absorb calcium from food and incorporate it into the bones. If the body is not able to regulate the mineral content in bones, they become less dense, more fragile, and resulting osteoporosis. For more information on other disorders, see The Merck Manual of Medical Information - Home Edition
H. Pylori
Helicobacter Pylori is a bacterium found in the stomachs of those suffering from ulcers. This antibody is a blood protein important to the immune system.


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Growing Consumer Demand for Direct Access to Labs
The growing demand by consumers for direct access laboratory tests was a huge story in 2002, from CNN, ABC, Time Magazine, WebMD, and many more. And it is continuing in 2003 as well. "Ordering Up Your Own Medical Tests" by Robert J. Davis, and published in the Wall Street Journal describes services offered by DLS. To read an article published 3/15/03 in Kansas City Star click here.

Attention Parents:
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INTER-HEALTHCARE ร่วมกับโรงพยาบาลปิยะมินทร์ บางนา-ตราด กม.6

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