Hepatitis B Blood test
- ไวรัวตับอักเสบ เอ
Hepatitis A Virus
- ไวรัสตับอักเสบ บี
Hepatitis B Virus
- ไวรัสตับอีกเสบ ซี
Hepatitis C Virus
- ไวรัสตับอักเสบ ดี
Hepatitis D Virus
your hepatitis B blood test results
is important to carefully discuss your test results with your health care
provider. You may want to take this
sheet with you to your appointment as a
In addition, it is helpful if you request a written copy
blood tests so that you can be sure you know your
the tests, here are two basic medical terms:
- this is a substance that sets off an alarm in your
protect itself (e.g. hepatitis B virus)
- this is produced by the body to protect itself from
antigen. Antibodies bind to and often inactivate
for Hepatitis B Infection
(hepatitis B surface antigen) - This is
surface of the hepatitis B virus that
triggers an antibody
"reactive" means that the person
with HBV and can potentially pass it
on to others who are
in close daily contact.
(hep B surface antibody) - The
presence of antibodies
indicates that a person
has been exposed to HBV, but
cleared the virus from their body and is no
longer contagious to others. The
antibody protects the
body from any future exposure to HBV infection - a
has been "naturally immunized". Antibodies are
also produced from
the HBV vaccine series.
(antibody to hepatitis B core) - This test is used
to identify a past or
Additional Blood Tests
for Hepatitis B Carriers
present HBV infection. It is
produced during and after acute HBV infection. The
antigen is part of the hepatitis B virus and the
antibody to the core antigen
is usually present in
chronic carriers. However, if it is present with a
anti-HBs (protective antibodies),
then it is associated with recovery from an
this person is not a carrier. The interpretation of this
on the first two test results.
- This is a viral protein that is
secreted by HBV infected
presence indicates high levels of virus in
blood which increases a carrier's
infectiousness to others
who are in close
contact. If this test is negative, but a
is known to be HBsAg positive, then it
low levels of virus in the blood,
which decreases one's
This test is often used to monitor the
effectiveness of some HBV therapies,
whose goal is to
convert a carrier to
who stop producing e-antigen sometimes
e-antibodies. The clinical signficance of this result is
Tests (or Liver Enzymes) - Includes
blood tests that
assess the general state of the liver and
biliary system. When elevated
above normal values, the ALT
(alanine aminotransferase) and AST
aminotransferase) tests indicate damage to liver cells.
ALT and AST are enzymes that are located in liver
cells and leak out into
the bloodstream when liver cells
(Alpha-FetoProtein) - This is a normal protein produced in
devloping fetus. Pregnant women will have elevated
AFP's. Other adults,
however, should not have much AFP in
their blood. In a chronic carrier,
high levels of AFP
could indicate the possibility of liver cancer since this
kind of tumor produces AFP.
- Iron is stored in the liver in the form of Ferritin.
of Ferritin means there is a high iron
storage. This could result from an
increased iron intake
in the diet (vitamin supplements, food cooked in iron
pots, etc.). An elevation can also occur from a
destruction of liver cells
causing leakage of Ferritin.
More research is needed to understand the
between elevated Ferritin and liver tumors.
Visit our Glossary
for additional terms.
of the Hepatitis B Blood Tests
- has not been infected, but is still at risk for
possible future infection. Needs protection.
- surface antibodies present. You may have been
already vaccinated. Or you have recovered from a
prior hepatitis B infection. You cannot infect
vaccine is not needed.
infection or a Chronic Carrier
- positive surface antigen, which means hepatitis
B virus is present. You can spread the virus to
a knowledgeable doctor for further evaluation.
Several different interpretations are possible.
You may need to have these tests repeated. See
vaccine may or may not be needed. Find a
knowledgeable doctor for further evaluation.
Hepatitis B Core-Antibody Test Result (HBcAB+)
May be recovering from acute HBV infection
2. May be distantly immune and test not sensitive enough
to detect low
level of anti HBs in serum
3. May be susceptible with a false positive anti-HBc
4. May be undetectable level of HBsAg present in the serum
person is actually a carrier
Note: The interpretation of each individual's results should
receive expert evaluation.
Unusual results do occur and the above is
"average" representing the most likely
chart above is provided as a guide for
the general public; it is not intended
as personal medical
advice. All individuals are strongly encouraged to
their own health care provider to evaluate their blood
What does the test
B surface antibody (anti-HBs): a positive
result indicates immunity to hepatitis B from the
vaccination or recovery from an infection.
B surface antigen (HBsAg): A negative result
indicates that a person has recovered from acute hepatitis
and has rid themselves of the virus. A positive (or
reactive) result indicates an active infection but does
not indicate whether the virus can be passed to others.
B e-antigen (HBeAg): A positive (or reactive)
result indicates the presence of virus that can be passed
to others. A negative result usually means the virus
cannot be spread to others, except in parts of the world
where infection with strains that cannot make this protein
B core antigen (anti-HBc): If it is present
with a positive anti-HBs, it usually indicates recovery
from an infection and the person is not a carrier. In
acute infection, the first type of antibody to HBc to
appear is an IgM antibody. Testing for this type of
antibody can prove whether a person has recently been
infected by HBV (where IgM anti-HBc would be positive) or
for some time (where IgM anti-HBc would be negative).
DNA: A positive (or reactive) result indicates
the presence of virus that can be passed to others. A
negative result usually means the virus cannot be spread
to others, especially if tests that can pick up as few as
1,000 viruses (copies) in one mL of blood are used.
In most cases, test
results are reported as numerical values rather than as
"high" or "low", "positive" or
"negative", or "normal". In these
instances, it is necessary to know the reference range for the
particular test. However, reference ranges may vary by the
patient's age, sex, as well as the instrumentation or kit used
to perform the test. To learn more about reference ranges,
please see the article, Reference Ranges and What They Mean.
To learn the reference range for your test, consult your
doctor or laboratorian.
B frequently asked questions
If your test result is positive,
you will see a red dot in the middle of the test cartridge.
A positive or unclear (faint dot) test result should be retested to
confirm the first result. A repeatedly positive test result is reason to
assume the presence of hepatitis B surface antigens.
Never interpret a positive test result as absolute proof of a hepatitis
B infection. All repeatedly positive or unclear test results should be
reconfirmed by other methods.
If the test result is positive, we advise you to consult a doctor. If
necessary, change your lifestyle and habits to exclude the possibility
of infecting other people, until you are certain you are not infected
with hepatitis B.
If the result is negative, you
can assume the absence of hepatitis B antigens in the blood sample. Also
in this respect, our test is highly accurate (more than 99,5 %). You may
conclude that you are not infected. However, a negative test result does
not entirely exclude the exposure to, or infection with hepatitis
Generally, it is not considered necessary to reconfirm a negative test
result, so you do not have to do a second, confirmatory, test.
The hepatitis B virus is present
in blood, sperm and body fluids. It is possible to be infected and show
no symptoms while infecting others. Hepatitis B is 80 to 100 times as
infectious as HIV. The most common causes of infection are :
- unprotected sexual contact
with an infected person
- multiple use of needles by
intravenous drug users
- use of unsafe blood products
or blood transfusions using unsafe blood
- infection of a newborn baby by
an infected mother
If you suspect you have been at
risk, or belong to high risk groups and you have not been vaccinated
yet, it is wise to test for hepatitis B.
Groups with increased risks for hepatitis B infection :
- people originating from the
Mediterranean countries, Eastern Europe, Africa, Asia and
- healthcare workers that get in
touch with blood
- chronic hemodialysis
- children of infected
- people with multiple sexual
- shared users of needles, razor
blades and toothbrushes
- intravenous drug users
- people with ear and body
piercing and tattoos
- recipients of blood
transfusions before 1975
Usually, there is an incubation
period of approximately 90 days from the moment of infection until the
first symptoms show. After this period, the following symptoms may occur
- loss of appetite
- nausea and vomiting
- general achiness
- abdominal pain
- dark brown urine
- yellowish skin and eyes
Alternatively, there may be no
symptoms at all. The disease may last several weeks to months. During
and after this time, patients will be fatigued.
In most cases, the virus will disappear within half a year after which
the patient will have formed antigens and is subsequently immune for new
hepatitis B infections nor can they infect others anymore.
It is also possible that the hepatitis B virus is only partially
eradicated by the patients immune system. Little or no symptoms show in
these cases. These patients become carriers. The virus is still present
in the body and the patients can infect others. Being a carrier usually
has little consequences for the patient, however, after many years of
being a carrier, there is an increased risk for cancer of the liver and
at any time the virus may become active again.
A relatively small percentage of patients experience chronic hepatitis
and experience no decrease in virus activity. These patients continue to
show the above symptoms and remain infectious to others.
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