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Chitin - Chitosan 
   䤵Թ⵫ҹ


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  Chitin - Chitosan 䤵Թ⵫ҹ      
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䤵Թ Ѵ㹡õçҧ ¤֧Ѻʨҡת 䤵Թͧ͡ѵ ᡹֡ ŧ ء мѧͧǡ ʵ ШԹաªԴ 䤵Թ㹸ҵçҧͧ֡ç 3 ѡɳ ſ䤵Թ Դҡ͡͡ ີ䤵Թ Դ᡹͡дͧ֡ 䤵Թ
⵫ҹ ҾʡѴҡ䤵Թ çҧͧ͡ дͧ ᡹֡ мѧŢͧ ҺҧԴ 䤵Թ-⵫ҹ Ѵѹ㹸ҵ ջҳͧ䤵ԹҡѹѺͧͧҡ 䤵Թ-⵫ҹ ѵԾ鹰ҹҡѺҵ § ԴѹµǴ ੾ҧ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ ⹷ʴѵԾ»С÷ҧҡ 㹡ôԹͨҧ èѺѺ͹ͧ СķҧҾ Ѩغѹաù䤵Թ-⵫ҹ һءԧҤصˡ Ҥɵá ҧᾷѪ õС͹㹡úӺѴӷ駨ҡçҹصˡ صˡ觷 ͻͧѹẤ ԵѳͤسҾ㹡ŴѹФ ͧ¤繷ʹ㨢ͧسҾʵշ 觡ԭԺ㹾תѵš͵ҧ ء ͺ״ءѡ ö 蹿Դ Ǣ
Ҿ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ㹻 ѹҨ ºһ ѹͧҨҡդҧҹѵشԺ (͡л) ѡҾ㹴ҹѵشԺ 繼Ҩҡ÷ 繻ȷ͡Թ͡ѹѺ ͧš ֧ҷҧѰչº㹡èӡѴ鹷§ ͡駷ж١͹Ѻçҹ ͹ѵشԺ㹡üԵ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ Ҩҡ 2 ҡ§駻ҳ 2 ʹѹͻ ШҡŻҳ 3 ʹѹͻ ѧ鹨֧ջѭ㹴ҹâҴŹѵشԺ ͤͧ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ㹷ͧҴ ǡѹѧդҧҹ෤ 駹෤շ㹡üԵ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ ෤շѺ͹ öдѺ͹ Т˭дѺصˡ ѨغѹçҹԹüԵ ѧҡ ѵҡüԵͧçѧ٧ҡ ҷҡʴҡѡ ҡͧâͧҴҡ âµصˡդҡǴ Թŧع ͧѡ-ͧ çҹҡ öѴкüԵҡ ҡ´ҹѧ ͹ҤͧҨ繻ȷ͡䤵Թ-⵫ҹдѺ ͧš ǡѺ秡Ҩ кǹüԵա Ҩջѭҵ ѭյҧлѭҼšзҹǴ öѴФǺ ҨǷҧҧ෤Ҵ෤ժҾѴ ͡ҡѧöѲҡüԵúǧ 䤵Թ ⵫ҹ мԵѳҧ ҡ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ ͧҧ ѹ繡ҧŤѺʴաҧ˹ ͡ҡѧ繡ºšäҡѺҧ Ǥ 㹡÷ҵͧ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ͡Ѻҧ ѹ ҡ鹻ҹ ӡüԵԵѳҡù 觡ѺҢͧ Ҥ٧ҡºѺҤ䤵Թ-⵫ҹҢ仢ҧ ѡԷʵйѡԨ㹻ͧ դöѲмԵԵѳҹ ѧͧçʹѺʹعСüԵ ʹ͡ѹҧѡԷʵ ѡԨ ѡصˡ мСͺ ͹кüԵٻẺӴѺ
سѵѡɳ
*ѵ˹ҷ **ûءмԵѳ
1. šŷФŵ (B)
  1. С͹еǵС͹ С÷˹ҷ
    ᤷ͹ԡѺӺѴ
  2. ǵС͹õչ繡ô еǵС͹¡ ШкҧԴ ʹСѹҾѧ
2. âٻѡɳеҧ (A, B)
  1. ٻ
  2. ٻͺҧ 㹡áͧ¡ ¡͡ҡš
  3. ٻ͡
3. ŷ (B)
  1. ͹
  2. 繵ǡҧѺ¡ԸⵡҿẺ
  3. âٻپعẺͧ
4. õ֧͹͡䫴 (A, B)
  1. ֧͹͡䫴㹺ҡ
  2. ÷ʴؼѺ͹͡䫴
5. ´¹ (A, B)
  1. Ե⤫չ ͧӵŵҧ (·ҧ͹)
6. ˹ (B)
  1. ǹͧҧ ѺاѡҼм
7. ôٴѺšŵҧ (A, B, C)
  1. 繵ǡҧͷⵡҿẺҧ ẺٴѺẺš¹ ¡šԹ, 䤵
8. ԡ (A, B)
  1. ҧ
  2. âѴ蹢ͧŴδ
  3. ѧ͹ؾѹҧ õͧ
9. ù俿 (B)
  1. ùͺҧ⵫ҹ ŷ šŷẵ Ȩҡž
10. ͺ (B)
  1. ÷㹡þ 觵ҧ
  2. ÷շ
  3. ÷⾧ ͧ
  4. صˡд
  5. ͺǼ ѡ ״ءѡ
  6. ͺѡ紾ѹת
11. Ǵ֧͡ (A, B, C)
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  2. ÷㹡ɵ ͺ þͺ
12. ǵҹԹ (B) 㹡ѡм
13. ǡԹջª (A, B) 㹡ûѺاԹջª
1. 㹴Թ㹹
2. ѵ餹
14. ÷Ȩҡ ԵõժԵ ֧
15. ҧԵҹҹ (A, B, C)
  1. 繵˹ǹ LPL activities ʹ
  2. ͵ҹá
16. ҹ (A, B, C)
  1. 繵ѡ ੾ ŷ ˹ѧѺ ѵ е (Ӽ˹ѧ)
  2. ѡҡд١ Ыǡִеҧ
17. 㹸ҵ (A, B, C)
  1. ŷ
  2. ûŴҧ
  3. Ǻ¢ͧ
18. Ŵ (B)
  1. آҾ ѵ
  2. Ŵѹʹ
19. ʹ͵ҹԴʹ (C)
  1. ʹ
  2. ʹ Ӥ͹ᷤŹ
20. 繿ͺ (B)
  1. мѡʴҹ
21. ҡѹѺҧ (A, B, C)
  1. ѡ
˵   * A 䤵Թ B ⵫ҹ C ͹ؾѹͧ䤵Թ
                  ⵫ҹ
               ** մ Եѳ͡Ҩ˹㹵Ҵ
ùӼŧҹª
ѭ حѵ ٹ෤ʴ觪ҵ
䤵Թ⵫ҹ ùҡ⵫ҹ
䤵Թ ⵫ҹ 繾Ҿ 觼Եҡ ͡ ͡ ù ҡ⵫ҹ 㹡ûԴ դسѵ Ŵ ˹ѧ 䤵Թ ⵫ҹ
÷Ԩͧ䤵Թ ⵫ҹз ʡѴҡ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ 任ءҧԧѧµͧ տ Ũҡا෾ҡѡ ա§ѵ
ء ١ҧ С й ǧ ͹ʡѴҡ䤵Թ-⵫ҹ任ء ҡ żԵդسҾ繷Ҿ ͡ҡѧԧѺҢ ͡дѺ١ҷҧҤ˹ʹ 䤵Թ-⵫ҹйɵẺԹ (Organic Farm) öŴѭյҧ ѭž ʹµɵáü мԵѳҧɵ ѧö᷹ ǹ˭ͧҨҡҧȻШӹǹҡ
䤵Թ/⵫ҹ (Chitin/Chitosan)

䤵Թ/⵫ҹ繾Ҿ觼Եҡͨҡصˡѵ ( ͡
͡) 繾դӤѭɰԨšҡ  
䤵Թ/⵫ҹդҡѹҧҾ (biocompatible) öµҧҾ 
(biodegradable) ֧ԵõǴ

䤵Թ (chitin) ⵫ҹ (chitosan) çҧҧդ ҧѹç䤵Թ
૵૵ ⵫ҹչ (amine group) ᷹δ͡ŷ 
C-2 ͧǧǹӵ (sugar ring) ԨоǧǹӵŢͧ䤵Թ⵫ҹ
ǡѹ ֧ѡ¡վǡ䤵Թ/⵫ҹ 
¡䤵ԹѺ⵫ҹ¨ӹǹչ չҡ 70% ¡⵫ҹ
ͧʴ䤵Թ/⵫ҹѵⴴ 駹ͧҡ͡͡٫
䤵Թ/⵫ҹʴԧСͺ͡ҡ˹ǩաҴҡ ѧöѺç٧ ¹
ٻҧ ҡԨóԧçҧ 䤵ԹШѴ§çҧ֡Ẻԡ

(cholesteric liquid crystal structure) õչлٹá ʴع鷹çءȷҧ
䤵Թ/⵫ҹդʴؾ ʴö˹ҷҧͷҧҾҧҧµͧ

(ѧ¡ functional materials) ҧ ù (polar membrane) 
ö㹡¡š (ͨҧ) ¡кǹҾêѹ (pervaporation) 繵

㹷ҧᾷѪ ա֡Ѻзҹǹ鹹͡ҡٴ
ҧЪ㹡͹ǢͧѧèӾǡ· ѧդ
ö㹡èѺѹ÷Ѻзҹ仡͹Դôٴҹ 
㹻Ѩغѹաù⵫ҹطآҾ㹡ûСͺŴǹ ͡ҡ 
ѧöӼ˹ѧѡ ͹ǡ Ŵ ѡ˧͡пѹ

͡ҡ 䤵Թ/⵫ҹѧöء㹼Եѳصˡҧ ҧҡ 
紾ѹת״ءлͧѹШԹصˡɵ õ͵ҹ
ШԹ áѹٴ ͺ ѡ м صˡ
鹰ҹͧ駷˹ ʺ Ūѹͺͧѹм ͧҡ䤵Թ/⵫ҹö
繵Ң¤˹ѧ 觷Сд ͻͧѹеҹҹä ѧ
˹ç 繵

Lowly shrimp shells could yield jumbo benefits, researchers say

That's because the shells of shrimp, crab and other crustaceans contain chitin, a starchy, plastic-like compound that some scientists believe is one of nature's most generous gifts.

Chitin is, after wood, the most plentiful organic fiber on Earth. Researchers at the Asian Institute of Technology in Bangkok say this resource could be used to create everything from wonder drugs to biodegradable plastics and crop enhancers for farmers.

Chitin can also be used to heal wounds and as an agent in paper and textile manufacturing, says Willem F. Stevens, a researcher at the Asian Institute of Technology. (Audio 376 K/17 sec. AIFF or WAV sound)

Shrimp shell soup
Shrimp shell soup used to make chitin   

To extract chitin, the researchers create a purification bath for the shrimp shells. A squirt of bacteria -- the same bacteria used in yogurt -- is added to strip the protein out of the shells.

The chitin that's left has some remarkable properities:

  • It's antifungal and antibacterial, but so easy on the skin that chitin membranes are being tested as a treatment for serious burn wounds.
  • Made into a waxy paper, chitin is nontoxic and quick to biodegrade.
  • Chitin syrup, when used to coat seeds, has been shown to improve crop yields by helping the seeds resist fungus and repel insects.

Researchers say the product's inherent stickiness also could prove valuable in:

  • New blood-clotting drugs for hemophiliacs.
  • New sperm paralyzing contraceptives.
  • Fat-blocking drugs for dieters.

Chitin and its more refined cousin, chitosan, already are available in diet-pill form.

"If you take chitosan, you'll slim down even if you eat a lot," Stevens says.

chitin powder
Chitin powder   

Thailand's Trang Seafood, which is sponsoring the chitin study, would like to find out if the discarded parts can be recycled into a money-making resource. Researchers at the Asian Institute of Technology believe that's possible, but that the startup costs will be high.

"Well, I think that's why our faculties are really looking for the international connections," says Dr. C. Kwei Lin, a researcher at the institute. "Maybe foreigners would have the capital and be willing to invest in us."

Already, Thailand's tasty black tiger shrimp play a starring role in world cuisine. Chitin experts are sure the shrimp will someday play an equally important role in medicine and industry.

 

CHITIN EXTRACTION

The process begins when dump trucks offload crab chum onto the factorys concrete floor. Fresh crab chum smells like steamed crabs, says Condon. Even when there are ten tons at the factory, as long as the material does not sit for a few days, there are no odor problems. A small skid steer loads the material into a hopper. A series of augers delivers shells into a 25-000 gallon holding tank. A dilute solution of caustic soda with a pH of 13.5 dissolves any remaining flesh and prevents further microbial activity or shell degradation. From there, shells are pulled out of the tank with a drag chain. The pieces go up a discharger snout and into a wash process. They are then chopped into quarter-inch particle sizes and conveyed into a mixing vessel, where they is treated with hydrochloric acid to gasify the minerals. The shells go through a sieve screen for solids separation and are washed before entering another caustic solution with a slightly elevated temperature to liquify proteins and produce chitin. After another screening, the chitin is washed and put through boiling lye to remove acetate from the molecule. It is now chitosan. Acid is consumed in the reaction and the caustic solution is recovered. The chitosan is then washed, dried, ground, weighed and packaged for sale.

On a dry weight basis, there is 12 percent yield in the process of extracting chitin from crab chum. Of the remainder, about half is gasified as CO2 and the rest is taken to Hurlock for composting. Due to concerns about soluble salts, it is processed separately from crab chum used for New Earth Services premium Chesapeake Blue compost. Its in a study pile, says Condon. Once its finished, well need to test for high conductivity.

Lime is another byproduct of the chitin process. Its not in a form that is saleable, says Condon. I dont know whether we can compost it or process it into a form that can be sold as lime.

Next season, New Earth Services will take as much crab chum as possible at its chitin factory. Condon expects eventually to pay a nominal fee for it. It will be an incentive to the industry to keep it clean and fresh, and then maybe we can contract to be sure we have raw material. The tipping fee at the composting site has generated tens of thousands of dollars each year, but the price of chitin is $10,000 a ton. His research company, Venture Chemicals, has developed a new application for chitin that should increase its market share. Chitin also may become more popular if concern grows about the toxicity of synthetic polymers used for removal of heavy metals in municipal wastewater treatment.

What remains to be seen is how crab chum will get to the chitin factory. Condon would like to see cooperation among the state, crab packers and his operation. These guys are in the middle of the boondocks, in remote areas driving on country roads, and not everybody has a reliable vehicle to travel the distance every day, he says. Funds could be made available for pilot transportation projects, like a transfer station for crab shells. The county brings garbage 40 miles north; theres no reason why it cant provide similar service for crab chum.


 

 
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