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Animal Health Division : Reagent test Strips

แถบตรวจวัดระดับสารเคมีในสัตว์เลี้ยง ตรวจสุขภาพสัตว์ จากปัสสาวะ เลือด น้ำนม
สอบถามรายละเอียดเพิ่มเติมได้ที่ 02 803 7310, 02 803 7311,02 803 7747

Healthcare Products 
and supplies for
Animal Health

เครื่องมือ/อุปกรณ์ดูแลสุขภาพ
สัตว์เลี้ยง

  VET Reagent Strips
  products designed 
  specifically for use in
  the diagnosis of animal
  health.
  
 
Glucose
   - AccuChek glucometer
 
BUN
 
Ketone
 
β-Hydroxybutyrate 
      ( BHB 

  กลับหน้าแรก AnimalHealth
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Blood sugar guidelines

Absolute numbers vary between pets, and with meter calibrations. The numbers below are as shown on a typical home glucometer while hometesting blood glucose, not necessarily the more accurate numbers a vet would see (though many vets use meters similar to those used in hometesting). For general guidelines only, the levels to watch are approximately:

mmol/L

mg/dL(US)

 

<2.2

<40

Readings below this level are usually considered hypoglycemic when giving insulin, even if you see no symptoms of it. Treat immediately[1]

2.7-7.5

50-130

Non-diabetic range[2] (usually unsafe to aim for when on insulin, unless your control is very good). These numbers, when not giving insulin, are very good news.

3.2-4.4

57-79

This is an average non-diabetic cat's level[3][4], but leaves little margin of safety for a diabetic on insulin. Don't aim for this range, but don't panic if you see it, either. If the number is not falling, it's healthy.

5

90

A commonly cited minimum safe value for the lowest target blood sugar of the day when insulin-controlled.

7.8

140

According to the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE)[5], threshold above which organ and pancreatic dysfunction may begin in hospitalized humans[6] and the maximum target for post-meal blood glucose in humans.[7]

5.5-10

100-180

Commonly used target range for diabetics, for as much of the time as possible.

<10-15

<180-270

"Renal threshold" (varies between individuals, see below), when excess glucose from the kidneys spills into the urine and roughly when the pet begins to show diabetic symptoms. See Hyperglycemia for long-term effects of high blood glucose.

14

250

Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in dogs, who are more sensitive to high blood sugar. Dogs can go blind at this level. Cats should try to stay below this too. Check for ketones.

16.7

300

Approximate maximum safe value for the highest blood sugar of the day, in cats, to avoid neuropathy and complications. Some cats can go on long-term at this level or higher, but there will be side effects eventually. Check for ketones.

>20

>360

Check for ketones frequently, be sure you are giving insulin. Cats are much more resilient than dogs or humans at these high levels; nevertheless, the blood sugar should be lowered. The cat or dog can feel any of numerous ill effects both short and long-term, see hyperglycemia for details.

What's too high?

At high readings, combined with inadequate administration of insulin, and not eating or drinking enough, or an infection, animals can sometimes quickly develop diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), which is immediately life-threatening. Always check urine for ketones at high readings. Of course, cats at much lower levels who have inadequate insulin supply coupled with infection, dehydration, or fasting can also develop ketones.

Some vets use a "sliding scale" regarding maximum permissible blood glucose values in dogs, "allowing" blind dogs or dogs with cataracts to use the concept of remaining under 250 at all times, with sighted dogs and dogs without cataracts ideally under 200.

Others apply the "under 200"[8] for dogs at all times without exceptions.

Cats are quite resilient to high blood glucose compared to dogs, and some cats lead reasonably normal lives at levels between 200 and 350 all day long. Neuropathy and other long-term effects can still build up over time, though.

Evidence from humans, mice, and in-vitro tissue studies show that damage to the pancreatic beta cells (the ones that make insulin) continues down to levels as low as 140mg/dL.[9]. This is why the AACE guidelines[10] recommend average blood sugars (for humans) of no more than 170, preferably between 65 and 136.[11]

See hyperglycemia.

Why you still need Ketostix/Ketodiastix

While home testing blood with a meter can tell you what your pet's blood glucose levels are, most can't do blood ketone testing.

When you have high blood glucose levels, doing ketone testing with Ketodiastix or Ketostix is good practice to make sure your pet doesn't have ketones. 

What's normal?

Normal blood glucose values for non-diabetic cats and dogs[19] range from 80-150[20][21] as measured on a vet's glucometer. Home glucometers used on animals tend to read a bit lower in the below-100 ranges, (reasons not yet understood), and so will frequently show lower numbers (see chart above) that are not cause for alarm.

The Feline Diabetes Message Board FAQ[22] lists 60-120mg/dL (3.3 - 6.7 mmol/L) as "normalized" when not receiving insulin, and 60-150 (3.3-8.3) as "tightly regulated" when receiving insulin.

Diabetes being the "individual" disease it is, allows for many personal exceptions. A dog on the canine diabetes message board[23] who was tightly controlled developed hypoglycemia symptoms every time his blood sugar dropped to 85 or below. The solution was to slightly reduce his insulin which kept him at slightly higher bg levels.

Interpretation

Note that no single blood glucose reading is adequate to establish insulin dosage or recommended treatment. Blood glucose levels should be checked before each shot, but that alone is also not enough to determine if treatment is working. Please see curve and regulation and duration for more information on this tricky subject.
 แถบตรวจหาสารเคมีสำหรับสัตว์เลี้ยง
  VET 10 :  Ascorbic acid
                       Urobilinogen
                       Protein
                       Specific gravity (Sp.gr.)
                       Ketone
                       Bilirubin
                       Glucose
                       Blood
                       Nitrite
                       Leukocyte

 VET-BUN whole blood Test strip
 VET-BUN in milk Test strip
 VET-BHB in milk Test strip
                       (
β-Hydroxybutyrate )

 

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder of carbohydrate metabolism due to relative or absolute insulin deficiency. Most cases of spontaneous diabetes occur in middle-aged dogs and cats. In dogs, females are affected twice as often as males, and incidence appears to be increased in certain small breeds such as Miniature Poodles, Dachshunds, Schnauzers, Cairn Terriers, and Beagles, but any breed can be affected. In one study, male cats were more commonly affected than females; no breed predilection is seen in cats.

Etiology and Pathogenesis:
The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for decreased insulin production and secretion are multiple, but usually they are related to destruction of islet cells, secondary to either immune destruction or severe pancreatitis (dogs) or amyloidosis (cats). Chronic relapsing pancreatitis with progressive loss of both exocrine and endocrine cells and their replacement by fibrous connective tissue results in diabetes mellitus. The pancreas becomes firm and multinodular and often contains scattered areas of hemorrhage and necrosis. Later in the course of disease, a thin, fibrous band of tissue near the duodenum and stomach may be all that remains of the pancreas. Selective infiltration of islets with amyloid, glycogen, and collagen with destruction of islet cells are less frequent causes of diabetes mellitus in dogs than in cats. In other cases, the numbers of β cells are decreased, and the cells become vacuolated; in chronic cases, the islets are difficult to find. Insulin resistance and secondary diabetes mellitus are also seen in many dogs with hyperadrenocorticism, and chronic administration of glucocorticoids or progestins can predispose to diabetes mellitus. In dogs, but not cats, progesterone leads to release of growth hormone, resulting in hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. Obesity also predisposes to insulin resistance in both dogs and cats

Complete expression of the complex metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus appears to be the result of a bihormonal abnormality. Although a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin action in response to a rising extracellular glucose concentration has long been recognized as the major hormonal abnormality, the importance of an absolute or relative increase of glucagon secretion has been appreciated more recently. Hyperglucagonemia in diabetes may be the result of increased secretion of pancreatic glucagon, enteroglucagon, or both. Increased glucagon appears to contribute to development of severe hyperglycemia by mobilizing hepatic stores of glucose and to development of ketoacidosis by increasing the oxidation of fatty acids in the liver

Cats with diabetes mellitus usually have specific degenerative lesions localized selectively in the islets of Langerhans, whereas the remainder of the pancreas appears to be normal. The selective deposition of amyloid in islets, with degenerative changes in β cells, is the most common pancreatic lesion in many cats with diabetes. The amyloid appears to arise from islet-associated polypeptide (IAPP), which is secreted together with insulin from the β cells. Cats seem unable to process IAPP normally, which leads to excessive accumulation and conversion into amyloid. As cats age, a greater percentage of their islets contain amyloid. Cats with diabetes have a greater percentage of their islets affected with larger amounts of amyloid than age-matched cats without diabetes. The amyloid or IAPP (or both) lead to both physical disruption of the β cell and insulin resistance, resulting in diabetes

  Infection with certain viruses in humans may cause selective islet damage or pancreatitis and has been suggested to be responsible for certain cases of rapidly developing diabetes mellitus. This has yet to be documented in dogs or cats. The selective degeneration and necrosis of β cells is accompanied by infiltration of the islets by lymphocytes and macrophages. Stress, obesity, and administration of corticosteroids or progestogens may increase the severity of clinical signs

Clinical Findings:
The onset of diabetes is often insidious, and the clinical course chronic. Common signs in dogs include polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia with weight loss, bilateral cataracts, and weakness. The disturbances in water metabolism develop primarily due to an osmotic diuresis. The renal threshold for glucose is ~180 mg/dL in dogs and ~240 mg/dL in cats

Diabetic animals have decreased resistance to bacterial and fungal infections and often develop chronic or recurrent infections such as cystitis, prostatitis, bronchopneumonia, and dermatitis. This increased susceptibility to infection may be related in part to impaired chemotactic, phagocytic, and antimicrobial activity associated with decreased neutrophil function. Radiographic evidence of emphysematous cystitis (rare) is suggestive of diabetes mellitus because of infections with glucose-fermenting organisms such as Proteus sp , Aerobacter aerogenes , and Escherichia coli , which result in gas formation in the wall and lumen of the bladder. Emphysema also may develop in the wall of the gallbladder in diabetic dogs.

Hepatomegaly due to lipid accumulation is common in diabetic dogs and cats. The fatty liver results from increased fat mobilization from adipose tissue. Individual liver cells are greatly enlarged by the accumulation of multiple droplets of neutral lipid. In cats, hepatic lipidosis may occur in conjunction with diabetes mellitus

Cataracts develop frequently in dogs (not cats) with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. The lenticular opacities appear initially along the suture lines of lens fibers and are stellate (“asteroid”) in shape. Cataract formation in dogs is related to the unique sorbitol pathway by which glucose is metabolized in the lens, which leads to edema of the lens and disruption of normal light transmission. Other extrapancreatic lesions associated with diabetes mellitus in humans, such as nephropathy, retinopathy, and micro- and macrovascular angiopathy, are rare in dogs and cats.

Diagnosis:
A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus is based on persistent fasting hyperglycemia and glycosuria. The normal fasting value for blood glucose in dogs and cats is 75-120 mg/dL. In cats, stress-induced hyperglycemia is a frequent problem, and multiple blood and urine samples may be required to confirm the diagnosis. Measurement of serum glycosylated hemoglobin or fructosamine (or both) can assist in differentiating between stress-induced hyperglycemia and diabetes mellitus. In all cases, a search should be made for drugs or diseases that predispose to diabetes

 

ACCUCHEK Blood Glucose Test Strips
เครื่องตรวจวัดระดับน้ำตาลจากหยดเลือดครบส่วน (สามารถตรวจได้เองที่บ้าน)

Product Description:
The AccuChek Test Strips are used with the
AccuChek Blood Glucose Meter to measure glucose (sugar) in whole blood. The AccuChek Test Strips are for testing outside the body ( in vitro diagnostic use). The AccuChek Blood Glucose Monitoring System is intended for use in the veterinary professional; and home settings to monitor animal blood glucose levels.

How to do the test:

1. Set Up- Put a strip in the meter. Press the "Start" button to turn the meter on. Make sure the code matches the code printed on the test strip vial label. If the code does not match , see your user guide for how to code the meter.

2. Do the test- Use the AccuChek lancet to obtain the correct size blood drop. Refer to the User Guide or veterinarian for blood sampling.

When the prompt to apply the sample appears on the screen, lance the site you have chosen, and obtain a blood sample about the size of a pinhead.

Gently touch only one edge of the test strip to the blood sample. You may fill the test strip from either side, but not both sides. When the strip is full, the meter will "beep" or you will see the moving lines or arrows on the display.

Do not pres the edge of the strip against the test site. Do not put the sample on top of the sample target area.

3. Read Results- Results are displayed in an average of 15 seconds. The test time may vary depending on the blood glucose level. The results will be stored in the meter memory. Results are displayed as mg/dL (milligrams per deciliter of blood).

See your AccuChek Blood Glucose Monitoring System User Guide for a detailed guide on how to do the test.

  • Use only the AccuChek Blood Glucose Meter with AccuChek Blood Glucose Test Strips.
  • Be sure that the code on the meter display screen matches the code on the test strip vial for dog or cat. If it does not match, see the User Guide for how to code the meter.
  • Fill the strip from only one side of the test strip.
  • The test strips are for single use only. Do not reuse test strips.
  • Do not use test strips that are beyond their expiration date. Check the test strip vial for the discard date.
  • Avoid exposing test strips to extreme temperatures.
  • Check meter and test strip performance regularly using the AccuChek Control Solution.
  • Blood glucose test results are shown on the meter as mg/dL.

Normal Glucose Values:

Consult a licensed veterinarian for the target glucose values for each animal.

Low Glucose Values:

The AccuChek Meter displays results between 20 and 500 mg/dL. If the test result is lower than 20, "LOW" (LO) will appear on the meter display. This indicated severe low blood glucose. You should immediately treat high blood glucose as recommended by a licensed veterinarian.

High Glucose Values:

If the test result is above 500 mg/dL, "HIGH" (HI) will appear on the meter display screen. This indicated severe high blood glucose. You should immediately treat high blood glucose as recommended by a licensed veterinarian.

Unexpected Results:

Low or high blood glucose readings can indicate a potentially serious medical condition. If the blood glucose level is unusually low or high, or if the animal does not show symptoms consistent with the results, repeat the test with a new test strip. If the reading is not consistent with any symptoms or if the blood glucose results, repeat the test with a new test strip. If the reading is not consistent with any symptoms or if the blood glucose result is less than 80 mg/dL for dogs and less than 100 mg/dL for cats or higher than 250 mg/dL for dogs and higher than 300 mg/dL for cats, you should contact your veterinarian.

Limitations:

The AccuChek Blood Glucose Test Strips give accurate results when the following limitations are observed.
1. The test strips are for single use only. Do not reuse test strips.
2. Clean the site and dry thoroughly before testing.
3. Use fresh, whole blood from the site you have selected to test.
4. There is no effect from altitude up to 10,400 feet above sea level.

Precautions:
For in vitro diagnostic use (outside the body) only.

Low or high blood glucose readings can indicate a potentially serious medical condition. If the blood glucose reading is unusually low or high repeat the test with a new test strip. If the reading is not consistent with any visible symptoms or if the blood glucose level is less than 80 mg/dL for dog's and less than 100 mg/dL for cats or higher than 250 mg/dL for dogs and higher than 300 mg/dL for cats, you should contact a licensed veterinarian and follow his or her treatment advice.

All devices contaminated with blood should be disposed of properly. Veterinarian professional should follow their institution's infection control protocols.

Do not use the test strips beyond the expiration date printed on the package since this may cause inaccurate results.

Storage and Handling:

  • Store the test package in a dry place between 38°F TO 86°F . Use test strips only within the system operating temperature range as outlined in your user guide.
  • Store away from direct sunlight and heat.
  • Use each strip immediately after removing it from the vial.
  • Store your test strips in their original vial only. The cap or vial contains drying agents to protect the test strips. Do not transfer test strips. Do not transfer test strips to a new vial or any other container.
  • After removing a test strip from the vial, replace the vial cap immediately and close it tightly.
  • Do not bend, cut, or alter a AccuChek Test Strip in any way.
  • With clean, dry hands, you may gently tough the test strips anywhere when removing it from the vial or inserting it into the meter.

Caution:

Keep the test strips away from children. The cap may be a choking hazard. The cap or vial contains drying agents to protect the test strips. Drying agents may be harmful if inhaled or swallowed and may cause skin or eye irritation

 Accu-Chek Lancing System - ชุดอุปกรณ์ช่วยในการเจาะเลือด
 
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